RSS

Category Archives: The Flipped Classroom

A First Look at Microsoft Teams for Education

I have to declare my bias up-front. My favourite Learning Management System is Moodle. I love the functionality of Moodle. However, most of the teachers in my school have gone for Google Classroom and I have gone along with that. What Google Classroom lacks in functionality it makes up for in simplicity. I am currently testing Microsoft’s answer, Teams for Education, which our Network Admins are punting, and I have to say I am somewhat torn. This may seem trivial, but my first reservation lies with the name of the platform, Teams. Had it been called Microsoft Classroom, for example, one would have had a sense that the platform was custom-built for educational purposes, rather than being a business tool adapted for use in the educational sphere. My fear was that it would prove a poorly adapted tool at that. A first glance at the interface did not inspire confidence either. Nothing about its look and feel suggests either ease of use or educational functionality. And yet persistence is rewarded by a sense of hidden power, something generally lacking in Google’s offering.

It is surprisingly easy to create a new Team (Class) or collaborative space. Let’s say you are creating a space for a class. You can add other teachers and students to the classroom easily by clicking on a button to add members. You can change settings and permissions in the general channel, and add other channels for different topics or purposes. Each channel comes with a OneNote Notebook which allows for the insertion of multimedia content, and gives each student their own notebook space. The power of OneNote is truly awesome and alone makes Teams a serious contender in the educational space.

You can also add other apps to the channel such as Quizlet or Flipgrid and any kind of file can be shared. This seamless integration of multimedia content and educational apps immediately catapults it ahead of Google Classroom’s functionality and puts it within spitting distance of Moodle! Assignments can be added and graded online too. Markbooks can be downloaded in CSV format.

Now, I have to say that I have not to date set up a real classroom for a real class with real content and assignments. Only once you do this will you get a sense as a teacher of how the platform meets your needs, and the extent to which students find it easy to use. But first impressions are somewhat promising. Teams for Education clearly has functionality, but it is also somewhat clunky and anti-intuitive. I will have to reserve final judgement until I have been able to use it as a platform in the wild!

 

 

Advertisements
 

The Power Of Voice – Reflective Collaboration

I recently came across a site called Flipgrid, which allows teachers to set up a grid which can be shared with the students in your class, or with other classes inside the school or globally. It offers a great opportunity to give students the capability of recording themselves and sharing ideas with other students. The free account allows a teacher to set up one grid. You can delete this to set up a second. Each grid does allow for multiple topics, however. This means that you can set a topic for discussion or for feedback after a project and students can record themselves (90 seconds on a free account) and post it to the topic grid. Other students with a link to the grid can then view that contribution. You end up with a grid of speaking heads which anyone with access to the grid can view.

Students can create their video using a QR Code and mobile phone, or from a PC or laptop using a web camera. They can listen to their recording and re-record multiple times before publishing to the grid. The interface is simple to use and clean. This makes it a perfect platform on which teachers can create different kinds of projects.

I used it for a mini Poetry Slam. My students wrote a short poem and then recorded themselves performing the poem, publishing it to the grid. By sharing the access with other classes you can achieve an inter-school poetry slam with absolute ease. It was highly motivating for students to be able to publish their performance in this way, and to view others. It also allowed me to easily set up a panel of judges to award certificates in different categories!

This platform also allows teachers to easily flip the feedback. Many classroom tasks and assignments end with a report back, feedback session of some kind. But there is often not enough time in class to do justice to this. If students are able to record their feedback report, it can be viewed by the class before the next session and used as the basis for further work, or viewed in class to form the basis for in-class discussion. If it is being used between schools, perhaps in different time zones, many of the difficulties associated with downloading or formatting video files disappears! As a teacher you can record a brief synopsis of what is required as the first recording in the grid.

The 90 second limitation should be seen as an asset! Brevity is usually a good thing, and enough substance can certainly be condensed into 90 seconds! Students are not limited to the number of contributions they can make either! They could use a mobile device to record a group report back, or record individual contributions to a group effort as they see fit.

Because students are able to view others, and listen to what they have said before they record their own and delete and restart their own recordings if necessary, the video contains some of the immediacy of a quick response with some ability to reflect on what others have said. This offers a very valuable space for both reflection and collaboration. The platform has been set up to encourage discussion and debate, to spark controversy, but it can easily be used for more traditional pedagogical aims such as exploring different points of view in History or Literature, or reflecting on a Science experiment, or for a quick research summary.

Some teachers may feel that the simplicity of the interface restricts possibilities. You cannot upload files or assignments alongside the video, for example, but I believe the simplicity makes the platform more accessible and flexible.

 

 

Surfing the MOOC – eLearning in the High School and the Importance of Creating Semantic Waves!

MOOCs burst onto the Higher Education scene with an almost Messianic promise to disrupt and transform educational practice for the better, giving affordable access to millions excluded from tertiary education. While the most optimistic predictions were tempered with a sense of disappointment in high drop-out rates and lack of inclusivity, it is undoubtedly true that many who would never have been able to access quality educational content have been enabled to do so. In part too, the response to the #FeesMustFall protests in South Africa has been for Universities to rely more heavily on online content provision. There was even talk in some quarters of most First Year courses porting online! In America platforms such as Coursera have turned to franchising content to tertiary colleges, with lecturers assuming the role of tutors, helping mediate content for students.

While the focus has been on Universities with #FeesMustFall, our schooling system is also in a critical position, with the actual pass rate being masked by the high drop out rate, and with our position in World Literacy and Mathematics rankings resolutely failing to rise out of the basement! Clearly something needs to be done. There can be no substitute for quality teaching, but until there is a commitment to uplifting skills and teacher training, technology may offer a partial solution through greater quality online provision. This is no magic wand, however, and the investment should always be on training how teachers use the technology rather than the content or the kit itself. It can never be an argument for cost-cutting or deskilling! If you simply got a few master teachers to record content and streamed it into classrooms, nothing would be achieved. For learning to be facilitated you would need empowered and motivated teachers in every classroom re-designing and purposing that content for their own context and the needs of their own students. To argue anything else is to completely misunderstand what teaching and learning entails, and to ignore all the research findings!

Teaching & Learning is founded on the deconstruction and reconstruction of knowledge. A fruitful approach to analysing how meaning is constructed in the classroom is offered by Legitimation Code Theory, a framework based on the work of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu. The architect of the framework is Karl Maton. One aspect of this approach is to look at semantic gravity (how abstract or concrete an idea is) and semantic density (how condensed, how simple or complex an idea is). If we chart the relative gravity or density of classroom interaction over time we can see semantic profiles, expressed as semantic waves.

Often what we see in the secondary school classroom is flat-lining. Either meaning remains at too general or abstract a level, ideas are not unpacked or explored, or the opposite extreme where ideas never move from a concrete prosaic level. What needs to happen for good teaching, and good learning, is a constant movement between the abstract and the concrete. Students need to have ideas unpacked, to understand concepts in their own more concrete idiom. Good teachers do this using metaphors, examples and everyday language to make concepts and academic language understandable. But students also need to be able to explore raw experience, raw data and tease ideas, themes and academic knowledge out of their own experiences.

This process takes many years and requires quality teaching and opportunities for quality guided, scaffolded learning. This process may be described as a series of semantic waves. My own research interest lies in the affordances that technology offers for the construction and deconstruction of knowledge in the classroom. I am still in the early stages of gathering data, but initial findings seem to suggest that technology can be quite good at assisting the movement between abstract and concrete, but needs a great deal of human intervention to facilitate the reverse movement of the wave. For example, students can readily benefit from watching a video on YouTube explaining how to do this or that! If they are motivated they will readily learn how to perform a series of dance moves or how to create back-lighting effects in 3D animation software. The video will painstakingly break down the movement, or the concept of back-lighting and show students exactly what they need to do. The video can be paused and rewound until the concept is grasped.

What is often found in classrooms, and in online instructional material is a similar series of movements from abstract to concrete. Ideas are being explained, and after explaining one, another is explored, and another and another, but students are not being given the opportunity to take these understandings and use these new understanding to reconstruct more abstract knowledge. Put another way teaching is going on, but very little learning. These half waves are called down-escalators. To achieve a better understanding of the concept students need to use their own experiences and go through a process of constructing knowledge in their own voice.

Technology can and does offer affordances for this reconstruction of knowledge. For example I saw a Science class the other day using simulation software to create electrical circuits on computers and immediately see the consequences of their actions. This use clearly assists students build up a better understanding of how electrical circuits work and allows them to begin to draw out a better understanding of the laws of electricity. However, in that class what I observed was a teacher constantly moving between students helping them use the software, and helping them draw the conclusions they needed to draw from what they were doing. If the students had been left alone very few of them would have derived much benefit from the exercise. They often got stuck and did not know what to do, and often drew incorrect conclusions and then couldn’t understand what the simulation was showing them.

All of this is a wordy way of pointing out what is obvious to most teachers, it is important to teach, and learning needs to be scaffolded carefully. Technology can help, but you need to adapt its use to your particular context and students. Plonking stuff online and hoping it leads to learning just doesn’t work!

The University MOOC model, with its Holy Trinity of the video lecture, the readings and the peer-assessed assignment just simply does not offer the level of scaffolding and mediation of content necessary in the secondary school. Some have suggested that the SPOC (Small Private Online Course) is the answer. This would allow for frequent live sessions in which teachers are able to support learning.

SPOCs and other online solutions could be used to achieve inter alia:

  • access to enrichment material to extend the regular syllabus, allowing topics to be explored in greater depth
  • access for subjects with too few students to support teachers in every school. For example Latin and other second languages or certain A-Level courses
  • access to remediation and extra support
  • overcoming social inequality through partnerships
  • home schooling
  • ameliorate teacher shortages
  • gap cover between school and university to upgrade necessary requirements
  • access to topics such as research skills, plagiarism & copyright protocols or career counselling, areas of the syllabus which are often cut due to pressure of time
  • talks and mentoring from global experts

SPOCs and other online programmes within secondary schools are beginning to be implemented and researched, and I believe will increasingly become a feature of the educational landscape. Teachers need to begin experimenting and finding out what works and doesn’t work. I believe they represent the wave of the future and a sphere that schools need to actively explore and gain capacity in. They will not replace schools, but they add an extra tool in the tool-box. I believe that if schools do not begin this exploration we may well face a wave of top-down impositions of MOOC-like solutions, cheap implementations which ignore the pedagogical realities of the classroom, but are appealing to politicians and administrators as cost-cutting measures and a way of de-skilling the teaching profession! If we do not have best-practice models to counter this argument we will have cheap and nasty solutions imposed on us.

Bibliography

Maton, K. (2013) Making semantic waves: A key to cumulative knowledge-buildingLinguistics and Education, 24(1): 8-22.

Maton, K. 2014. Knowledge and Knowers towards a realist sociology of education. London and New York: Routledge.

 

Lite Beer: Google Classroom Revisited

google classroomI have previously declared myself an avid Moodler, and this has not changed. However, most of the teachers in my school have swung over to Google Classroom, many from Edmodo, and so I have decided to give it a second look.

I now run my English classes off a Google Classroom platform, so I’ve been able to have a good hard look at it. Other teachers tell me they have chosen to move to Classroom because it is easier to use, and looks good. They do, however, then complain about lack of functionality. I have to say that I find Classroom neither pretty, nor particularly easy to use. In terms of functionality it is light years behind platforms like Moodle. My opinions regarding its strengths and weaknesses have not really altered.

So what has changed? I have to say that ultimately the only thing is that most teachers at my school have now adopted Classroom and so it has become the nearly universal platform. Having a single platform in a school is a great benefit, especially for students who do not have to access multiple platforms. Assignments are reasonably easy to create, although teachers have struggled with aspects such as creating copies of Google docs for each student. You need to be careful not to save the assignment and add the document later, which is not very intuitive. Being able to create copies of a single document is, nevertheless a great function, and perhaps Classroom’s single greatest strength, its ability to seamlessly link to Google Drive and the collaborative power that brings! The ability to email groups of students who have not completed an assignment, for example, is also a key benefit. Beyond this, though, the lack of ability to create rubrics, to assign students to groups within a class, the lack of plugins and modules allowing for peer assessment, or ability to add html elements such as twitter feeds for back channels renders Classroom somewhat emasculated. The design is stilted and grading assignments tricky if the connection slows. Were it not for its ubiquity, I would certainly not be using it!

Like a lite beer, Classroom seems like a watered down version of the real stuff! And yet it is winning hands down. Is it simply that it has the backing of Google? Or is it that its uncluttered functionality better suits teachers who are not focused on the technology but need a handy tool they don’t have to think too much about? I suspect that both of these reasons apply. As a dyed-in-the-wool Moodler my hope is that Classroom will get teachers used to the advantages of using a LMS, but will either acquire necessary functionality or will ultimately drive teachers towards proper platforms like Moodle. What Moodle needs to do is ensure that it improves its look and feel, become more intuitive and user-friendly, while retaining the ability to get under the hood and customise as need be.

 

Page vs Screen: Technology in the Classroom isn’t Hobson’s Choice!

CiPQ5hgWEAAm-2RIt seems to me that in any class I teach there are three distinct groups of students: one consisting of enthusiastic adopters of digital technologies; a second group of those comfortable enough with the technology, but rather less gung-ho about it; and finally a group which struggles with anything to do with a device, and is all at sea. I gave my grade 8 English class a writing task the other day, and told them they could submit digitally, or on paper. A large group reached immediately for their devices, but some put their tablets to one side, and took out pen and paper. Likewise, when it comes to reading, most of my students have a textbook, but a few use eBooks downloaded on their kindles.

This is, I believe, exactly what it should be. The introduction of technology in the classroom should never amount to an all or nothing affair. The research on the effects of reading and writing on page and screen is by no means conclusive, and with something as important as reading and writing, I believe we should be very cautious about any change. On the other hand so much reading and writing is done on devices these days, we would be ill-advised to ignore it. My common sense, unscientific intuition is that both page and screen form important modalities for literacy practices, and that we need to cultivate good habits in both.

I try to give my students opportunities throughout the year to read and write on page and screen. This has some obvious advantages. When my students are writing in Google docs I can view and comment in real-time, as the writing is happening. This allows me to engage with the process of writing in ways which are more constrained on paper. But I do worry that writing on paper may well be developing other skill sets, such as fore-planning, which screen writing might be eroding. So I make sure that we do writing on paper as well. And sometimes I give them a choice. I have to admit that this is all hope and pray for the best – I have no idea what I am doing. But I do hope that by mixing things up sufficiently, hit and miss tactics will result in more hits than misses.

The time has come to start developing a comprehensive notion of what it means to read or write on the screen, and how to teach good habits towards hypertextual reading and screen writing. here are some initial thoughts:

  • Reading Hypertext is about scanning for information and synthesising ideas from hyperlinked sources, so students need to be given tasks which call for them to browse rapidly to find relevant information, and need to have these skills scaffolded. How do you evaluate what is relevant and valid? How do you go about assessing what it is you need to find: what is your question? How do you go about assessing where to find this?
  • Reading the page is more about following a narrative or train of thought and understanding how the argument is structured. This can be practised through more searching “comprehension” style exercises.
  • Screen Writing is less about setting out your thoughts before you begin writing, planning the structure of your argument; it does afford a more exploratory style. You need a more recursive writing strategy in which you interrogate what you have written to reveal the argument that is emerging from the words. These habits can be practised.
  • Page Writing, because the ability to edit is constrained, needs more thorough planning, and a sense of the structure of your narrative or argument before you begin writing, or recursive drafting.

At the moment very little work is being done in developing ways of teaching and assessing these different modalities. I suspect language teachers are largely winging it, as I am, but we do need to start addressing these issues before we lose a generation to bad page and screen habits!

 

Integrating Thinking & IT

There is a common assumption that IT somehow leads to better thinking. The assumption behind this is that IT promotes more independent thinking, more self-directed learning and greater opportunity for promoting critical thinking. I am not saying that this is not the case, but I do think that it is only the case if we as teachers consciously and deliberately find ways of making it so.

edtechdigest.blog

Sans obstacles, gliding ahead with personalized learning.

GUEST COLUMN | by Maurice de Hond

CREDIT Steve Jobs School NetherlandsTwo points stood out at the recent ASU/GSV edtech summit in San Diego: there were three times more visitors than two years ago in Scottsdale, Ariz., and the number of new businesses and products in the field of edtech has now grown strong. The majority of those companies and products focus on personalizing education, responding to the level and possibilities of the pupil.

So long as your students are organized into age-based groups as has always been done, the best technology will deliver little return with respect to a personalized approach. It’s like trying to ice skate on grass.

I’ve been active in this field since 2012, like Max Ventilla of AltSchool. I got involved because I have a young child who started using an iPhone and iPad at a very early age. However, when…

View original post 620 more words

 

High School MOOCs – an idea whose time has come?

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) were widely predicted to disrupt tertiary education, even to replace Universities. This has not really happened, for many of the same reasons that ICTs have not disrupted classrooms to any great extent. But this is not to say that MOOCs have failed. Despite the high drop-out rate, and concerns that only those who already have tertiary education are really benefiting, it cannot be denied that many people are getting a huge amount of value from MOOCs. I have taken several MOOCs on different platforms. Some have delivered great content in engaging and innovative ways, others have been more pedestrian in approach, but still gave great content, and so, were of value. Some were not for me, and I dropped out as soon as I realized it wasn’t offering what I was looking for.

While it seems certain that MOOCs will never replace Universities, what about High schools? On the face of it MOOCs look more appropriate at tertiary level. Students of high school age still need teachers to mediate content and scaffold learning far more actively than at tertiary level. While online delivery of lectures is hardly very different to lecture-hall fare, classroom teaching is far more interactive, and more difficult to reproduce online. This is not to say, however, that MOOCs could not be devised which are more suitable for high school students, and while they are extremely unlikely to disrupt high school, I believe they will increasingly start to fill a niche purpose. Here’s why!

The first argument for introducing MOOCs at High School level is that it would help students prepare for life long learning. MOOCs can be intimidating places unless you are confident that you can overcome the isolation of online platforms, and it seems reasonable to suggest that we need to prepare students for using online solutions to further their education.

Secondly, there are areas of the syllabus that may not be able to be effectively covered in the classroom for whatever reason. We all know that most syllabi are far too long and teachers struggle to complete all the content necessary to prepare students for high stakes examinations! Being able to take some aspects off-site and online, and maintain a guided approach to the content, could be vital to being able to complete a programme in preparation for an examination. For example, my colleagues and I are really struggling right now to get through The Merchant Of Venice with our grade 8s. Our Head Of Department insists that we cover every word, and I would like to ensure that I can help students unpack the major speeches in some detail, and do exercises in class to explore their own understanding of the play. This balancing of the need for instruction and meaning making activities, combined with long syllabi and shrinking contact time means that I am always chasing my tail. All it takes is one day lost to a Biology field trip, or school photographs, and I’m sunk!

Using the Flipped Classroom model, I could certainly record some videos in which I unpack the meaning of the major speeches, giving more time in class for discussion, and activities designed to encourage students to make the material their own. Many teachers are already doing this. If you use apps like Zaption, you can insert quiz questions into the video to ensure that students are watching it and understanding it. Videos might lack the affordance of live questioning, but they can be paused and re-played at will, and questions can be asked and answered online, or in class the next day. You can also use Open Educational Resources to add extra context. At this stage you are not just flipping your classroom, you are creating a MOOC. Platforms such as Moodle or Google Classroom will allow you to post videos and allow students to submit assignments online. Moodle even allows for peer assessment.

A third reason for developing a MOOC is that it can be used for extension or remedial programmes. Some students might need further explanation, and this could be delivered via online videos or readings. While it might cover similar material to that covered in class, it allows students who miss class, or are falling behind to review content. It also allows those who are moving ahead to be able to tackle extra questions or concerns. While moving remediation offline might seem counter-intuitive, the reality is that in the frantic day-to-day of the classroom, vital one to one interventions sometimes slip through the cracks, and careful explanation available 24/7 online forms a useful safety net.

A fourth rationale is that it allows teachers to play to their strengths and compensate for lacunae in their knowledge. If a department works together to create materials for a MOOC, it is likely to be far more valuable for all their students. Even where team teaching is not possible, it allows for students in any class to be exposed to different perspectives and approaches. The extension of this idea would be for teachers from different schools to collaborate on creating content which could be shared for all their students. This content could be made available nationally and internationally to under-resourced schools, and help to compensate for skills shortages. I believe this would make a powerful contribution to education generally.

And lastly, the use of collaborative platforms would add value to traditional aUntitledapproaches. Google docs, for example, allows for students to engage in collaborative authoring of documents such as study notes or assignments. Such documents, attached to the MOOC, would allow for students to use the MOOC platform to explore the ideas being raised and discussed in class. While this might be confined to a single class, extending to the whole grade, or neighbouring schools, considerably adds to the value being co-authored.

While high school children require more scaffolding than tertiary level students, I believe that setting up your own MOOCs, by sharing them with other faculty, and schools presents a powerful model for transforming student learning. It is indeed an idea whose time, I think, has come.

 
 
%d bloggers like this: